Acrostichum - Parkeriaceae

Acrostichum aureum L.

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

Photo: P. Ballings
Zimbabwe

 

 

 

 

Synonyms

Acrostichum inaequale Willd.
Chrysodium aureum (L.) Mett.
Acrostichum guineense Gand.
Chrysodium inaequale (Willd.) Fée

Common name

Description

Plants in colonies or large isolated clumps. Rhizome erect to procumbent, massive, c. 6 mm in diameter; rhizome scales hard, 1-4 cm long, dark brown, linear-lanceolate in outline, with thick black median area and margins irregular to lacerate. Fronds erect to arching, tufted, coriaceous, 1.5-3 m long, up to 40 cm wide, with fertile pinnae born towards the apex of the frond, occasionaly forked at the apex. Stipe brown, up to 0.8 m long (up to 1/3 of total frond length), covered with spine-like bladeless pinna bases, shallowly shannelled above. Lamina pinnate with a free conform terminal pinna, roughly lanceolate in outline. Sterile pinnae petiolate, glabrous, linear to oblong-lanceolate in outline, 8-36 x 1-7.5 cm, margin entire to wavy, apex rounded to bluntly pointed, base unequally wedge-shaped, usually directed forward at about 45° from the rachis and facing upwards; midrib prominent on lower surface; venation visible on upper surface with areoles. Fertile pinnae similar in size and shape to sterile pinnae, or sometimes slightly smaller, undersurface entirely covered with sori save for the costa.

Notes

Derivation

aureum: golden, possibly referring to the golden-brown colour of the ripening sporangia in our specimens.

Habitat

Mostly in coastal mudflats, mangrove forest and reedbeds, in or near estuaries, at inland springs, exposed or lightly shaded, salty marshy valley bottoms in sisal plantations, swampy soil around saline artesian springs.

Distribution worldwide

pantropical

Distribution in Africa

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (incl. Bioko), Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania , Zimbabwe.

Growth form

Terrestrial.

Literature

  • Burrows, J.E. (1990) Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Frandsen, Sandton. Page 114. (Includes a picture).
  • Crouch, N.R., Klopper, R.R., Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2011) Ferns of Southern Africa, A comprehensive guide. Struik Nature. Pages 298 - 299. (Includes a picture).
  • Jacobsen, W.B.G. (1983) The Ferns and Fern Allies of Southern Africa. Butterworths, Durban and Pretoria. Pages 219 - 220. (Includes a picture).
  • Roux, J.P. (2009) Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands. Strelitzia 23, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. Page 150.
  • Roux, J.P. (2001) Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report, 13 Pages 81 - 82. (Includes a picture).
  • Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1970) Pteridophyta. Flora Zambesiaca, 0 Page 99. (Includes a picture).
  • Verdcourt, B. (2002) Pteridaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa, Pages 1 - 3. (Includes a picture).
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